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Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Figure 4

Change in wing angle over time during a single boing.

Vertical wing angle at the beginning and end of successive wing strokes during a typical boing (vertical plane toward the substrate = 0°) of the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata. The first arrow indicates the first wing stroke producing audible sound and the second arrow indicates the downstroke producing the highest amplitude sound.

Figure 4