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Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees

Figure 5

Abundance of P. quercifex in a common garden experiment.

Bars represent the mean (±SEM) P. quercifex 1st instars per 10 leaves. We calculated mean abundance across 4 sample dates (May 10, 17, 26, and July 15, 2011) since Repeated Measures ANOVA indicated there was no interaction of time with ovisac source or temperature treatment. 1st instars hatched from ovisacs collected on hot (red) and cold (blue) urban trees, then reared on ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ greenhouse saplings (x axis). There was a significant interaction between P. quercifex ovisac source temperature and greenhouse temperature (F1, 134 = 11.57, P = 0.0009, n = 40). Detailed statistics are available in Table 1.

Figure 5

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059687.g005