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Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees

Figure 4

Percent parasitism of P. quercifex on hot and cold urban trees.

Bars represent the mean (±SEM) percent of dissected 2nd instars, adults, and ovisacs that had been parasitized on hot (red) and cold (blue) urban trees in Raleigh, NC on four dates in 2011. Temperature treatment had no significant effect on percent parasitism (F1, 6.45 = 0.21, P = 0.6631, n = 11).

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059687.g004