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Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa

Figure 1

Elephant dung density and range reduction across the Central African forests.

Predictions are shown for (A) 2002 and (B) 2011 for the model with variables: survey year∧, Human Influence Index***, corruption*** and the presence/absence of guards***, and (C) 2002 and (D) 2011 for the model with variables: survey year∧, proximity to road∧, human population density***, corruption*** and the presence/absence of guards*** (P-values are: ‘***’ <0.001 and ‘∧’ <0.1). Increasingly darker shades of green correspond to higher densities, grey represents extremely low elephant density range (the first interval: 0–100 elephant dung piles/km2) and white is non-habitat (80 survey sites outlined in red). Cutpoints are: 0; 100; 250; 500; 1,000; 1,500; 3,000; 5,000; and 7,500 dung piles/km2. Countries 1–5 are: Cameroon; Central African Republic; Republic of Congo; DRC; Gabon.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g001