Sex Differences in Mathematics and Reading Achievement Are Inversely Related: Within- and Across-Nation Assessment of 10 Years of PISA Data
Each data point indicates the sex differences of one country. Positive values indicate a larger disadvantage, negative values an advantage. Red points indicate nations in which girls’ mathematics achievement is significantly higher than that of boys; blue points indicate nations in which boys’ mathematics achievement is significantly higher than that of girls; and, black points indicate nations in which there is no statistically significant difference in mathematics achievement. The advantage of girls in reading achievement is statistically significant in all nations, except for 2 in 2000 (Israel, Peru) and one in 2003 (Liechtenstein).