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Deformation of Attractor Landscape via Cholinergic Presynaptic Modulations: A Computational Study Using a Phase Neuron Model

Figure 1

Schematic diagram of cortical layers in the early visual cortex (V1/V2).

The bottom-up spike signals via layer 4 from the thalamus core circuit and the top-down spike signals onto layer 1 (and layer 6) interact in the perception of external sensory stimuli in the early cortex (V1/V2). Moreover, acetylcholine (ACh) is transiently released from the nucleus basalis of Meynert to all the layers associated with top-down attention. In layers 2/3, pyramidal neurons (PYRs) that project their apical distal dendrites to layer 1, interneurons (INs), and fast spiking neurons exist. Moreover, it is also known that ACh to layer 1 depolarizes calretinin positive () INs in layer 1 through nicotinic receptors. However, we do not consider the latter effect in our model for simplicity.

Figure 1