Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5
(A,C) Replication-deficient virus induces a loss of claudin-5 as shown by immunofluorescence (A) and western blot (C). In A, cells were infected (MOI 8) for 24 hours. Images are randomly selected and representative of 3 experiments. In C, cells were infected with influenza at the indicated MOI (control = 0). Image is representative of 4 experiments; histogram is the quantitation and shows mean and standard deviation and is normalized to control, *p<0.05. (B) In contrast, replication-deficient virus (MOI 8 in B) does not affect levels or distribution of VE-cadherin as shown by immunofluorescence (B) and western blot (C). Immunofluorescence images are representative of 3 experiments and western blot is from 4 experiments. The histogram is normalized to control. (D) Replication-deficient virus (MOI 8) does not alter the actin cytoskeleton as shown by immunostaining of F-actin with phalloidin. Images are representative of 3 experiments.