Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5
(A) Replication-deficient influenza induces endothelial permeability to a lesser degree than live virus over time. Lung endothelium was infected with either live or replication-deficient (UV flu) influenza and the change in TEER was measured every 4 hours for 24 hours. Data for live flu (mean, SE) are from 4 experiments and for UV flu are from 5 experiments. All data are normalized to control, *p<0.05 for live vs UV flu. (B) Binding of influenza to endothelial cells is insufficient to produce leak. Lung endothelial cells were treated with indicated doses of hemagglutinin (HA) (Immune Technology Corp.) and the change in TEER was measured after 24 hours. Data (mean, SE) are from 3 experiments and are normalized to control.