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Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior

Figure 1

Experimental paradigm used to test neuropeptide and autonomic responses to stimuli in WS and TC.

Subjects include 13 WS (7 females, 6 males) and 8 TC (4 females, 4 males). An indwelling catheter was placed 30 mins before blood samples were obtained. Music began at 0 min and continued for 5–8 mins (shaded area); music was selected by each subject as eliciting pleasurable emotional responses. At 19 min, subjects were asked to put one hand in cold water (10–15°C) for 30–60 secs (shaded area). Blood samples were taken prior to (5 and 0 mins), during (1, 5 mins) and immediately following the music (10, 15 mins), and after the cold pressor (20, 25, 30, and 45 mins). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at 30, 5, 1, 20 and 45 mins (see Supplemental Information).

Figure 1