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Evolution of Fruit Traits in Ficus Subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): To What Extent Do Frugivores Determine Seed Dispersal Mode?

Figure 3

Panel plot of fig size (log transformed) against leaf area (log transformed) by fig placement type.

The y-axis represents the residuals after controlling for phylogenetic auto-correlation (see Methods). Dark grey and light grey points represent species with “red” and “green” mature figs, respectively. Relative to axial figs, cauliflorus type (ii) (est = 8.468±3.2355, t = 2.617, p = 0.01147) and geocarpic (est = 4.237±1.5943, t = 2.658, p = 0.01033) figs were significantly larger, figs on species with larger leaves were significantly larger (est = 0.998±0.1843, t = 5.418, p = 0.000001), and there was a significant negative interaction between fig placement and leaf area for cauliflorous type (i) (est = –1.665±0.5972, t = –2.789, p = 0.00729) and geocarpic (est = −0.816±0.2978, t = –2.739, p = 0.00832) species (Table S3).

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038432.g003