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Optogenetic Mimicry of the Transient Activation of Dopamine Neurons by Natural Reward Is Sufficient for Operant Reinforcement

Figure 4

Optical stimulation promotes locomotion.

A, Following 20 minutes of habituation, there were alternating periods of 2 minutes with and without stimulation (200 ms pulses at 1 Hz), for a total of 5 periods and 10 minutes of each condition. B, Both head speed and C, number of contralateral (but not ipsilateral) rotations were greater during stimulation (white) than non-stimulation (gray) in ChR2-H mice, but not in ChR2-L or AAV- mice.

Figure 4