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Optogenetic Mimicry of the Transient Activation of Dopamine Neurons by Natural Reward Is Sufficient for Operant Reinforcement

Figure 2

Operant responding for 200 ms of optical stimulation.

A, Responses on the active (thick line) and inactive port (thin line) for each of the 4 ChR2-H mice, as well as 2 additional mice for which no histology results were obtained (magenta and cyan), over 9 days of acquisition followed by 9 days of extinction. On day 7, the mouse represented in magenta made 236 nose pokes at the active port (not shown). The thick gray lines, in ‘A’ and ‘B,’ represent the mean number of responses across the 4 ChR2-H mice. B, Break points on a PRS. Break points for the inactive port were zero in all cases and are not shown. C, Average responses (mean ± s.e.m.) on the active (thick line) and inactive (thin line) ports for ChR2-L (n = 4) and AAV- (n = 7) mice.

Figure 2