Measuring Nepotism through Shared Last Names: The Case of Italian Academia
For each institution (84, as I excluded on-line Universities), I computed the frequency by dividing the number of pairs of professors sharing the last name by the total number of possible pairs. I arrange in a circle the institutions based in the same city (e.g., 9 Universities in Roma). Darker shades stand for higher frequencies. The frequency of last name-sharing for each institution is reported in Supplementary Table 7 in Supporting Information S1.