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Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro

Figure 4

RF-EMR induces oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa.

Following Percoll fractionation, 5×106 high density, spermatozoa were suspended in 1 ml BWW. The cells were placed in 35 mm Petri dishes and placed inside a waveguide. 5×106 cells in 1 ml BWW were placed outside the waveguide as a control (closed circle). The cells in the waveguide were exposed to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR at SAR levels between 0.4 and 27.5 W/kg (open circles) and all samples were incubated for 16 h at 21°C. Following incubation, Fe2+ and H2O2 was added to cells to act as a positive control, incubated for 1 h, then 100 µl 2 mM DTT/BWW solution was added and incubated for 45 min at 37°C. Cells were fixed and labeled with 100 µl charcoal purified anti-8-OH-dG, FITC tagged antibody at a dilution of 1∶50, incubated at 21°C for 1 h, washed and then assessed by flow cytometry. A, As the power levels were increased, the amount of oxidative DNA damage expressed also increased. A significant amount of oxidative DNA damage was observed in cells exposed to 2.8 W/kg (*p<0.05) RF-EMR and above (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Results are based on 4 independent samples. B, The levels of 8-OH-dG expression were positively correlated with the levels of ROS generation by the mitochondria (R2 = 0.727).

Figure 4

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006446.g004