Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro
Percoll-purified spermatozoa (5×106 cells) were suspended in 1 ml BWW in a 35 mm Petri dish and placed within the waveguide while control cells placed outside the waveguide. A frequency of 1.8 GHz at a SAR of 27.5 W/kg was used and all samples were incubated for 16 h at 21°C. A, Sperm vitality was significantly reduced from the control value of 82%±4% to 29%±4% for the exposed cells (***p<0.001). B, Sperm motility was also significantly reduced from the control value of 82%±4% to 28%±1% (**p<0.01). C, ROS production was increased after RF-EMR exposure such that 28%±1% of the cells were producing ROS, while only 7%±0.4% of the controls contributed to ROS production (***p<0.001). D, 24%±1% of the exposed cells generated mitochondrial ROS, while the only 12%±1% of the control cells produced ROS from this source (***p<0.001). All results are based on 4 independent samples.