Parasitoid Increases Survival of Its Pupae by Inducing Hosts to Fight Predators
The distance covered by parasitized and unparasitized caterpillars was measured daily. Parasitoid pupae were either removed from parasitized caterpillars (No pupae) or not (With pupae). Unparasitized caterpillars were supplied with pupae (With pupae) or not (No pupae). Before parasitoid egression (black bars: mean+s.e.m.), the difference in displacement of parasitized and unparasitized caterpillars was not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, KW = 7.12, d.f. = 3, P = 0.068). After egression (white bars: mean+s.e.m.), parasitized caterpillars moved significantly less far than unparasitized caterpillars (KW = 24.0, d.f. = 3, P<0.001). The difference in displacement of parasitized caterpillars before and after egression was significant (**: Wilcoxon Matched Pairs test, P<0.01). Numbers of replicates are given in brackets.