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Parasitoid Increases Survival of Its Pupae by Inducing Hosts to Fight Predators

Figure 1

A caterpillar of the geometrid moth Thyrinteina leucocerae with pupae of the Braconid parasitoid wasp Glyptapanteles sp.

Full-grown larvae of the parasitoid egress from the caterpillar and spin cocoons close by their host. The host remains alive, stops feeding and moving, spins silk over the pupae, and responds to disturbance with violent head-swings (supporting information). The caterpillar dies soon after the adult parasitoids emerge from the pupae. Photograph by Prof. José Lino-Neto.

Figure 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.g001