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Direct and Indirect Induction of a Compensatory Phenotype that Alleviates the Costs of an Inducible Defense

Figure 2

(a) Effects of predator presence and oxygen availability on the development of the external gills of salamander larvae.

(b) Low-oxygen tolerance of salamander larvae reared under predator presence or absence, and high- or low-oxygen treatment. Open and solid squares indicate that rearing condition of larval salamander is the high-oxygen treatment and the low-oxygen treatment, respectively. Error bars indicate ±1 s.e.m.

Figure 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001084.g002