About the Authors

Lucian Farcal

Affiliation Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Fernando Torres Andón

Affiliation Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Luisana Di Cristo

Affiliation Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

Bianca Maria Rotoli

Affiliation Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

Ovidio Bussolati

Affiliation Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

Enrico Bergamaschi

Affiliation Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy

Agnieszka Mech

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Nanna B. Hartmann

Affiliations Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark

Kirsten Rasmussen

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Juan Riego-Sintes

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Jessica Ponti

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

François Rossi

Affiliation Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission—Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Agnes Oomen

Affiliation National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Peter Bos

Affiliation National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Rui Chen

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing, P. R. China

Ru Bai

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing, P. R. China

Chunying Chen

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing, P. R. China

Louise Rocks

Affiliation Centre for BioNano Interactions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland

Norma Fulton

Affiliation Centre for Nano Safety, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Bryony Ross

Affiliations Centre for Nano Safety, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Gary Hutchison

Affiliation Centre for Nano Safety, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Lang Tran

Affiliation Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Sarah Mues

Affiliation Biomedizinisches Technologiezentrum, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany

Rainer Ossig

Affiliation Biomedizinisches Technologiezentrum, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany

Jürgen Schnekenburger

Affiliation Biomedizinisches Technologiezentrum, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany

Luisa Campagnolo

Affiliation Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Lucia Vecchione

Affiliation Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Antonio Pietroiusti

Affiliation Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

Bengt Fadeel

bengt.fadeel@ki.se

Affiliation Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: OB EB AKO FR CC LR GH LT RO JS LC AP. Performed the experiments: FTA LDC BMR JP RC RB NF BR SM LV. Analyzed the data: FTA OB EB AKO FR CC LR GH LT RO JS LC AP. Wrote the paper: LF BF. Provided and reviewed the physico-chemical characterization of nanomaterials: AM NH KR JRS. Contributed to the discussion on ITS development: AO PB. Contributed to the finalizing of the manuscript: FTA OB EB AKO FR CC SM JS LC AP AO PB KR JRS.