About the Authors

Carles Grau, Alejandro Riera, Giulio Ruffini
Starlab Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Carles Grau
Neurodynamics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Psychology and Medicine Faculties, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Romuald Ginhoux, Thanh Lam Nguyen, Hubert Chauvat, Michel Berg
Axilum Robotics, Strasbourg, France

Alejandro Riera, Giulio Ruffini
Neuroelectrics Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Julià L. Amengual
Cognition and Brain Plasticity Unit, Department of Basic Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have the following interests: This study was funded in part by Starlab Barcelona. Co-authors Carles Grau, Alejandro Riera and Giulio Ruffini were employed by Starlab Barcelona during these studies. Co-authors Romuald Ginhoux, Thanh Lam Nguyen and Michel Berg are employed by Axilum Robotics. Co-authors Alejandro Riera and Giulio Ruffini are employed by Neuroelectrics Barcelona. Authors affiliated to Starlab or Neuroelectrics have a commercial interest in promoting the EEG/brain-stimulation system described in the paper (Starstim). Authors affiliated to Axilum Robotics have an interest in promoting their robot to automate the positioning of a transcranial magnetic stimulation coil. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GR CG APL. Performed the experiments: AR RG MB GR CG HC JLA. Analyzed the data: GR RG AR CG HC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TLN GR CG AR. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: GR CG APL RG MB AR.