About the Authors

Matthew H. Schneps, Chen Chen, Gerhard Sonnert
Science Education Department, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jenny M. Thomson, Chen Chen
Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marc Pomplun
Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

mschneps@cfa.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MHS GS JMT CC MP. Performed the experiments: MHS CC. Analyzed the data: GS CC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MHS JMT CC. Wrote the paper: MHS GS JMT CC MP.