About the Authors

Sumithra Muthayya

Affiliation Sax Institute, Sydney, Australia

Jee Hyun Rah

Affiliation United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) India, New Delhi, India

Jonathan D. Sugimoto

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and the College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Franz F. Roos

Affiliation DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland

Klaus Kraemer


Affiliation Sight and Life, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland

Robert E. Black

Affiliation Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

R.E. Black has no conflict of interest. S. Muthayya and J.D. Sugimoto worked as consultants for Sight and Life, a humanitarian nutrition think tank of DSM. DSM is a global vitamin producer and has been a global partner of the United Nations World Food Programme since 2007. J.H. Rah was employed by Sight and Life when the manuscript was drafted. K. Kraemer is employed by Sight and Life, and F. Roos has been employed as a full-time biostatistician by DSM Nutritional Products since 2007. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SM JHR KK. Analyzed the data: JS FR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: REB. Wrote the manuscript: SM JHR SM FR KK REB.