About the Authors

Serge A. Wich
Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

David Gaveau, Elis Molidena
Centre for International Forestry Research, Situ Gede, Bogor Barat, West Java, Indonesia

Nicola Abram
Durrell Institute for Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

Marc Ancrenaz, Isabelle Lackman
Sabah Wildlife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Marc Ancrenaz, Isabelle Lackman
HUTAN, Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Marc Ancrenaz
North England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Chester, United Kingdom

Alessandro Baccini
The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, United States of America

Stephen Brend
Orangutan Foundation, London, United Kingdom

Lisa Curran
Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, California, United States of America

Lisa Curran
Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Roberto A. Delgado
Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Program in Integrative and Evolutionary Biology (IEB), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States of America

Andi Erman
GFA/KWF, Kapuas Hulu Program, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Gabriella M. Fredriksson, Anita Naomi, Graham Usher
Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (PanEco-YEL), Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia

Gabriella M. Fredriksson
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics/Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Benoit Goossens
Danau Girang Field Centre, c/o Sabah Willife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Benoit Goossens
Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Simon J. Husson
Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, c/o the Center for International Cooperation in the Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP), University of Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Andrew J. Marshall
Department of Anthropology, Graduate Group in Ecology, Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, California, United States of America

Nardiyono, Anton Nurcahyo, Andjar Rafiastanto, Imam Sapari, Jamartin Sihite, Albertus Tiju, Sri Suci Utami Atmoko
Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

Nardiyono, Purnomo
The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Jakarta, Indonesia

Anton Nurcahyo, Kisar Odom, Amat Suyoko
Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Nyaru Menteng, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Adventus Panda
World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), Sebangau Conservation Program/University of Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Andjar Rafiastanto
Flora and Fauna International-Indonesia, Ragunan, Jakarta, Indonesia

Dessy Ratnasari
Lembaga Living Landscapes Indonesia (LLI), Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Adi H. Santana, Sri Suci Utami Atmoko
Biology Faculty, Universitas Nasional (UNAS), Jakarta, Indonesia

Imam Sapari, Eddy Santoso
Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia (YAYORIN), Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Carel P. van Schaik, Erik P. Willems
Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Jamartin Sihite
Restorasi Habitat Orangutan Indonesia (RHOI), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

Stephanie Spehar
Anthropology Program, Department of Religious Studies and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, United States of America

Albertus Tiju
World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), West Kalimantan Program, Indonesia

Erik Meijaard
People and Nature Consulting International, Ciputat, Jakarta, Indonesia

Erik Meijaard
School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Erik Meijaard
School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

E. Meijaard is presently employed by People and Nature Consulting International (PNCI). PNCI had no role in the study, and the company does not benefit financially from the research. The affiliation with PNCI does not alter E. Meijaard's adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SAW DG NA MA E. Meijaard. Performed the experiments: SAW DG NA MA GU E. Meijaard. Analyzed the data: SAW DG NA MA GU E. Meijaard. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SAW DG NA MA AB SB LC RAD AE GMF BG SJH IL AJM A. Naomi E. Molidena N A. Nurcahyo KO AP PAR DR AHS IS CPS JS SS ES AS AT GU SSUA EPW E. Meijaard. Wrote the paper: SAW DG NA MA E. Meijaard.