About the Authors

Chong Qiao

qiaochong2002@hotmail.com

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Chunhui Wang

Affiliation Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Jiao Zhao

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Caixia Liu

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Tao Shang

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CQ. Performed the experiments: CW JZ CQ. Analyzed the data: CQ JZ. Wrote the paper: CQ CW. Collected the placental samples: CL TS.