About the Authors

Raina N. Fichorova

rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Yujin Lee

Contributed equally to this work with: Yujin Lee, Hidemi S. Yamamoto

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Hidemi S. Yamamoto

Contributed equally to this work with: Yujin Lee, Hidemi S. Yamamoto

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Yuko Takagi

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Gary R. Hayes

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Russell P. Goodman

Address Current address: Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Xenia Chepa-Lotrea

Address Current address: Xenia Chepa-Lotrea: NIH, NIDDK, Liver Disease Branch Immunology, Section, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Olivia R. Buck

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ryan Murray

Address Current address: Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Affiliation Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Tomasz Kula

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David H. Beach

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Bibhuti N. Singh

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Max L. Nibert

Affiliation Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Performed the experiments: RNF YL HSY ORB XCL. Analyzed the data: RNF YL HSY RM ORB. Wrote the paper: RNF. Conceived and designed the experiments, immunology and cell biology: RNF; virology: MLN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, LPS and primary TV isolates: BNS DHB GH; virion isolation and RT-PCR: YT TK RPG; TVV dsRNA and RNAse treatments: YT; TV culture: DHB GH XCL RM ORB RNF; TV cloning: RNF; Western blot: ORB; qNPA: HSY; luciferase and immunoassays: YL HSY RM ORB. Reviewed and approved the manuscript: RNF YL HSY YT GH RPG XCL ORB RM TK DHB BNS MLN. Recruited clinical subjects: BNS.