About the Authors

Richard M. Martin, Rita Patel, Ying Foo
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Richard M. Martin
MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Alexander Zinovik, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Natalia Sergeichick, Nina Gusina
National Research and Applied Medicine, Mother and Child Centre, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Michael S. Kramer
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Michael S. Kramer
Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Emily Oken
Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Robert Gunnarsson, Lisa Grufman
Mercodia AB, Uppsala, Sweden

Corresponding Author

richard.martin@bristol.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal’s policy and have the following conflicts: Robert Gunnarsson and Lisa Grufman are scientists employed by Mercodia AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Their contribution to this work was to modify and validate the Human Insulin ELISA according to user needs and intended use. The Human Insulin ELISA modified and used in this work is a commercial product. Robert Gunnarsson and Lisa Grufman have no shares in Mercodia AB nor any economical benefits from publishing these data. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RMM MSK EO YF AZ NG RG LG KV NB NS. Performed the experiments: YF AZ NG RG LG. Analyzed the data: RMM RP AZ YF NG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RMM RG LG YF NG AZ NB KV NS. Wrote the paper: RMM RP MSK EO YF AZ NG RG LG KV NB NS. Secured funding: RMM MSK EO. Obtained permissions in Belarus: KV NB NS. Organised fieldwork in Belarus: KV NB NS. Conducted fieldwork monitoring and audits: KV NB NS. Trained pediatricians: RMM MSK EO RP YF NG NB NS KV.