About the Authors

Tomo-o Watsuji, Hisako Hirayama, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Ken Takai
Subsurface Geobiology Advanced Research Team (SUGAR), Extremobiosphere Research Program (XBR), Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan

Manabu Nishizawa
Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan

Yuki Morono
Geomicrobiology Group, Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, JAMSTEC, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan

Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano
Atomosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TW KT. Performed the experiments: TW MN. Analyzed the data: YM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HH SK NT YS. Wrote the paper: TW. Provided input on manuscript: HH SK NT YS KT MN YM.