About the Authors

Nicholas J. Steers

Affiliations United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Silvia Ratto-Kim

Affiliations United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Mark S. de Souza

Affiliation Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand

Jeffrey R. Currier

Address Current address: Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Affiliations United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jerome H. Kim

Affiliation United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Nelson L. Michael

Affiliation United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Carl R. Alving

Affiliation United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Mangala Rao

mrao@hivresearch.org

Affiliation United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NJS SRK MSS MR. Performed the experiments: NJS SRK MSS. Analyzed the data: NJS SRK MSS MR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JRC JHK NLM CRA. Wrote the paper: NJS MR.