About the Authors

Ruth H. Carmichael

rcarmichael@disl.org

Affiliations University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

William M. Graham

Address Current address: Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, United States of America

Affiliations University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

Allen Aven

Affiliations University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

Graham Worthy

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States of America

Stephan Howden

Affiliation Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RHC WMG. Performed the experiments: RHC WMG GW SH. Analyzed the data: RHC WMG AA GW SH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RHC GW SH. Wrote the paper: RHC WMG AA GW SH.