About the Authors

Junichi Sugahara

Affiliations Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Japan, Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Japan

Kosuke Fujishima

Affiliation Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Japan

Takuro Nunoura

Affiliation Subsurface Geobiology & Advanced Research Project, Extremobiosphere Research Program, Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science & Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

Yoshihiro Takaki

Affiliation Microbial Genome Research Group, Extremobiosphere Research Program, Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science & Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

Hideto Takami

Affiliation Microbial Genome Research Group, Extremobiosphere Research Program, Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science & Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

Ken Takai

Affiliation Subsurface Geobiology & Advanced Research Project, Extremobiosphere Research Program, Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science & Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

Masaru Tomita

Affiliations Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Japan, Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Japan

Akio Kanai

akio@sfc.keio.ac.jp

Affiliations Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Japan, Systems Biology Program, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors declare that co-author AK is a PLoS ONE Editorial Board member. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JS TN AK. Performed the experiments: JS TN YT. Analyzed the data: JS KF TN YT HT KT MT AK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TN YT HT KT. Wrote the paper: JS KF TN AK.