About the Authors

Xia Wang

Affiliation School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield Dublin, Ireland

Alistair J. McGowan

Affiliation School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Gareth J. Dyke


Affiliation School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: XW AM GD. Performed the experiments: XW AM GD. Analyzed the data: XW AM GD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XW AM GD. Wrote the paper: XW AM GD.