About the Authors

John N. Kittinger

jkittinger@gmail.com

Address Current address: Stanford University, Center for Ocean Solutions, Woods Institute for the Environment, Monterey, California, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Geography, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America, Program in Ecology, Conservation and Pathogen Biology, National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education, Research and Training (IGERT), University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America

John M. Pandolfi

Affiliation Centre for Marine Science, School of Biological Sciences, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Jonathan H. Blodgett

Affiliation Centre for Marine Science, School of Biological Sciences, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Terry L. Hunt

Affiliation Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America

Hong Jiang

Affiliation Department of Geography, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America

Kepā Maly

Affiliation Kumu Pono Associates, LLC, Lāna‘i City, Hawai‘i, United States of America

Loren E. McClenachan

Affiliation Earth to Ocean Research Group, Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Jennifer K. Schultz

Affiliations Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai‘i, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, United States of America, Program in Ecology, Conservation and Pathogen Biology, National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education, Research and Training (IGERT), University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America

Bruce A. Wilcox

Affiliations Office of Public Health Studies, Global Health Program, University of Hawai‘i, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America, Program in Ecology, Conservation and Pathogen Biology, National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education, Research and Training (IGERT), University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have the following competing interest: Kepa Maly is an employee of Kumu Pono Associates. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JNK JMP BAW JHB JKS. Performed the experiments: JNK. Analyzed the data: JNK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JNK JMP BAW JHB TLH HJ LEM JKS KM. Wrote the paper: JNK.