About the Authors

Xinyu Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Xinyu Liu, Roxanne Fernandes

Address Current address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Affiliation Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Roxanne Fernandes

Contributed equally to this work with: Xinyu Liu, Roxanne Fernandes

Affiliation Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Marina Gertsenstein

Affiliation Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Alagammal Perumalsamy

Affiliation Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Ingrid Lai

Affiliation Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Maggie Chi

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Kelle H. Moley

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ellen Greenblatt

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Igor Jurisica

Affiliation Departments of Computer Science and Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Robert F. Casper

Affiliations Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Yu Sun

sun@mie.utoronto.ca (YS); jurisicova@lunenfeld.ca (AJ)

Affiliation Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Andrea Jurisicova

sun@mie.utoronto.ca (YS); jurisicova@lunenfeld.ca (AJ)

Affiliations Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RFC YS AJ. Performed the experiments: XYL RF AP IL MG MC AJ. Analyzed the data: XYL RF AP IJ KM YS AJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EG KHM IJ. Wrote the paper: XYL YS AJ. Developed the robotic microinjection system and performed robotic microinjection experiments: XYL YS. Performed embryo culture, scoring, and data analysis: AJ. Performed manual embryo microinjection: MG. Oversaw human sample collection: EG.