About the Authors

Jonathan Silvertown, Mike Dodd, Jenny Worthington
Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Laurence Cook
Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Robert Cameron
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Kevin McConway
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Peter Skelton
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Christian Anton
Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Halle, Germany

Oliver Bossdorf
Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Bruno Baur
Section of Conservation Biology, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Menno Schilthuizen
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands

Benoît Fontaine
Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Helmut Sattmann
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Natural History Museum of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Giorgio Bertorelle
Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

Maria Correia, Cristina Oliveira
Ciência Viva - National Agency for Scientific and Technological Culture, IBMC - Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

Beata Pokryszko
Museum of Natural History, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland

Małgorzata Ożgo
Institute of Biology, Pomeranian University, Słupsk, Poland

Arturs Stalažs
Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing, Dobele, Latvia

Eoin Gill
Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland

Üllar Rammul
Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia

Péter Sólymos
Department of Biological Sciences, Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Zoltan Féher
Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary

Xavier Juan
Department of Science, INS Sant Quirze, Sant Quirze del Vallès, Spain

Corresponding Author

J.Silvertown@open.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JS LC RC MD KM PS. Performed the experiments: JS LC RC MD KM JW PS CA OB BB MS BF HS GB MC CO BP MO AS EG UR PS ZF XJ. Analyzed the data: JS LC RC MD KM. Wrote the paper: JS LC KM.