About the Authors

Jan Ostermann

Affiliations Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for Health Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Elizabeth A. Reddy

Affiliation Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Meghan M. Shorter

Affiliation Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Charles Muiruri

Affiliation Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Antipas Mtalo

Affiliation KIWAKKUKI (Women Against AIDS in Kilimanjaro), Moshi, Tanzania

Dafrosa K. Itemba

Affiliation KIWAKKUKI (Women Against AIDS in Kilimanjaro), Moshi, Tanzania

Bernard Njau

Affiliations Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania

John A. Bartlett

Affiliations Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania

John A. Crump

Affiliations Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania

Nathan M. Thielman

n.thielman@duke.edu

Affiliations Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NT JO ER MS. Performed the experiments: ER MS DI AM. Analyzed the data: JO ER. Wrote the paper: JO ER NT JC JB CM BN.