About the Authors

Patricia G. Parker

pparker@umsl.edu

Affiliations Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, WildCare Institute, Saint Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Elizabeth L. Buckles

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Heather Farrington

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

Kenneth Petren

Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

Noah K. Whiteman

Address Current address: University of Arizona, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Robert E. Ricklefs

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Jennifer L. Bollmer

Address Current address: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Gustavo Jiménez-Uzcátegui

Affiliation Department of Vertebrates, Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, Ecuador

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PGP ELB NKW. Performed the experiments: PGP ELB NKW KP HF JLB RER GJU. Analyzed the data: PGP ELB NKW HF RER JLB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PGP ELB NKW KP. Wrote the paper: PGP ELB NKW HF KP RER JLB GJU.