About the Authors

William F. Precht

Affiliation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Key Largo, Florida, United States of America

Richard B. Aronson


Affiliation Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States of America

Ryan M. Moody

Affiliation Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America

Les Kaufman

Affiliation Boston University Marine Program, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WFP RBA LK. Performed the experiments: WFP RBA. Analyzed the data: WFP RBA RMM LK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WFP RBA. Wrote the paper: WFP RBA RMM LK.