About the Authors

Angela M. C. Rose, Sibylle Gerstl, Philippe J. Guerin
Epicentre, Paris, France

Ali E.-H. Mahamane, Fati Sidikou, Saacou Djibo, Suzanne Chanteau
Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (CERMES), Réseau International des Institut Pasteur, Niamey, Niger

Laurence Bonte
Médecins sans Frontières, Paris, France

Dominique A. Caugant
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJG. Performed the experiments: AMR SG AEHM FS SD DAC SC. Analyzed the data: AMR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AEHM FS SD LB DAC SC. Wrote the paper: AMR SG PJG. Refined the protocol methodology: AMR. Co-supervised work in the field: AMR SG. Provided laboratory testing advice in initial protocol stages and throughout project: LB. Commented on draft manuscript: LB DAC. Provided advice throughout the project: DAC. Overall supervision of project: PJG. Overall supervision of confirmatory tests in CERMES laboratory in Niger: SC.