About the Authors

Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry–Apiculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Robyn M. Underwood
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jerry Hayes Jr.
Florida Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant and Apiary Inspection, Apiary Inspection Section, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

Jeffery Pettis
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)–ARS Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

dennis.vanengelsdorp@gmail.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: Dv JHJ JP. Performed the experiments: JHJ RMU JP. Analyzed the data: Dv RMU. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: Dv. Wrote the paper: Dv JHJ RMU JP.