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Table of Contents: December 2010

A young man suffering from sleeping sickness rests on a bed at the Dipumba THA center in the province of Kasai, DRC, between two doses of intravenous treatment. He started NECT treatment (co-administration of intravenous eflornithine with oral nifurtimox) which was recently introduced for late-stage disease. Although NECT is a major improvement over the highly toxic melarsoprol, it still needs 2 daily intravenous infusions over 7 days. An oral treatment, as the one proposed with fexinidazole in this issue (see Torreele et al., 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000923), is urgently needed to support control programs and all efforts to eliminate sleeping sickness. DRC has the highest number of sleeping sickness cases in Africa.

Image Credit: Benoît Marquet

Viewpoints

Neurocysticercosis May No Longer Be a Public Health Problem in Mexico

Ana Flisser, Dolores Correa

Photo Quizzes

A Case and Review of Noma

Joseph E. Tonna, Matthew R. Lewin, Brett Mensh

Symposiums

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Trypanosomiasis in Low Endemic Countries: A Case Report

Leolin Katsidzira, Golden Tafadzwa Fana

Reviews

The Unknown Risk of Vertical Transmission in Sleeping Sickness—A Literature Review

Andreas K. Lindner, Gerardo Priotto

Research Articles

Parasitic Worms: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Western Côte d’Ivoire with Implications for Integrated Control

Cinthia A. Acka, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Andres B. Tschannen, Isaac I. Bogoch, Essane Séraphin, Marcel Tanner, Brigit Obrist, Jürg Utzinger

Miltefosine in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

Paulo R. Machado, Julia Ampuero, Luiz H. Guimarães, Leonardo Villasboas, Ana T. Rocha, Albert Schriefer, Rosana S. Sousa, Anette Talhari, Gerson Penna, Edgar M. Carvalho

Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Prediction of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis

Nicola A. Wardrop, Peter M. Atkinson, Peter W. Gething, Eric M. Fèvre, Kim Picozzi, Abbas S. L. Kakembo, Susan C. Welburn

Revisiting the Immune Trypanolysis Test to Optimise Epidemiological Surveillance and Control of Sleeping Sickness in West Africa

Vincent Jamonneau, Bruno Bucheton, Jacques Kaboré, Hamidou Ilboudo, Oumou Camara, Fabrice Courtin, Philippe Solano, Dramane Kaba, Roger Kambire, Kouakou Lingue, Mamadou Camara, Rudy Baelmans, Veerle Lejon, Philippe Büscher

Analyses of an Expressed Sequence Tag Library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca

Jonas Lundström, Fernando Salazar-Anton, Ellen Sherwood, Björn Andersson, Johan Lindh

Quantifying the Spatial Dimension of Dengue Virus Epidemic Spread within a Tropical Urban Environment

Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Uriel Kitron, Brian Montgomery, Peter Horne, Scott A. Ritchie

Granulomatous Reactivation during the Course of a Leprosy Infection: Reaction or Relapse

Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Gil Benard, Somei Ura, Cássio Cesar Ghidella, João Carlos Regazzi Avelleira, Francisco Reis Vianna, Alfredo Bolchat Marques, Ben Naafs, Raul Negrão Fleury

The Extinction of Dengue through Natural Vulnerability of Its Vectors

Craig R. Williams, Christie A. Bader, Michael R. Kearney, Scott A. Ritchie, Richard C. Russell

Fexinidazole – A New Oral Nitroimidazole Drug Candidate Entering Clinical Development for the Treatment of Sleeping Sickness

Els Torreele, Bernadette Bourdin Trunz, David Tweats, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Guy Mazué, Michael A. Bray, Bernard Pécoul

Subversion of Innate Defenses by the Interplay between DENV and Pre-Existing Enhancing Antibodies: TLRs Signaling Collapse

Naphak Modhiran, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Sukathida Ubol

Ecology and Transmission of Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Systematic Review

Richard W. Merritt, Edward D. Walker, Pamela L. C. Small, John R. Wallace, Paul D. R. Johnson, M. Eric Benbow, Daniel A. Boakye

Sex, Subdivision, and Domestic Dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineage I in Southern Ecuador

Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Martin S. Llewellyn, Jaime A. Costales, Michael A. Miles, Mario J. Grijalva

The Potential Economic Value of a Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease) Vaccine in Latin America

Bruce Y. Lee, Kristina M. Bacon, Diana L. Connor, Alyssa M. Willig, Rachel R. Bailey

Responses of Human Endothelial Cells to Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Leptospira Species

Denise G. Martinez-Lopez, Mark Fahey, Jenifer Coburn

Fusion between Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major Parasitophorous Vacuoles: Live Imaging of Coinfected Macrophages

Fernando Real, Renato A. Mortara, Michel Rabinovitch

Focus–Specific Clinical Profiles in Human African Trypanosomiasis Caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Lorna M. MacLean, Martin Odiit, John E. Chisi, Peter G. E. Kennedy, Jeremy M. Sternberg

Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A Gene Expression in the Blood of Bacteremic Patients in Bangladesh

Alaullah Sheikh, Richelle C. Charles, Sean M. Rollins, Jason B. Harris, Md. Saruar Bhuiyan, Farhana Khanam, Archana Bukka, Anuj Kalsy, Steffen Porwollik, W. Abdullah Brooks, Regina C. LaRocque, Elizabeth L. Hohmann, Alejandro Cravioto, Tanya Logvinenko, Stephen B. Calderwood, Michael McClelland, James E. Graham, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T. Ryan

Contrasting Spatial Distribution and Risk Factors for Past Infection with Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus in Vientiane City, Lao PDR

Julie Vallée, Thaksinaporn Thaojaikong, Catrin E. Moore, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Allen L. Richards, Marc Souris, Florence Fournet, Gérard Salem, Jean-Paul J. Gonzalez, Paul N. Newton

A Novel Tropically Stable Oral Amphotericin B Formulation (iCo-010) Exhibits Efficacy against Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Murine Model

Ellen K. Wasan, Pavel Gershkovich, Jinying Zhao, Xiaohua Zhu, Karl Werbovetz, Richard R. Tidwell, John G. Clement, Sheila J. Thornton, Kishor M. Wasan