Citation: Hotez PJ, Herricks JR (2015) Impact of the Neglected Tropical Diseases on Human Development in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Nations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(11): e0003782. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003782
Editor: Sara Lustigman, New York Blood Center, UNITED STATES
Published: November 25, 2015
Copyright: © 2015 Hotez, Herricks. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Funding: JRH would like to acknowledge financial support from Clare Glassell. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
The employment of a new “worm index” of human development, together with additional published health information, confirms the important role neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) play in hindering the advancement of many of the world’s Muslim-majority countries.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC, previously the Organisation of the Islamic Conference) is the major inter-governmental organization of 57 Muslim-majority countries, with a mission to promote human rights (especially those of children, women, and the elderly), education, trade, and good governance (Fig 1) . Under the OIC charter, the advancement of science and technology through cooperative research is also a key component [1,2]. In 2009, one of us (PJH) reviewed the available data on the major NTDs and found that many of these diseases disproportionately affected OIC countries, particularly the poorest nations of the Sahel and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia . A previous survey of the 28 largest OIC nations—each with a population of at least 10 million people and comprising more than 90% of the populations of the OIC—found that they accounted for 35%–40% of the world’s soil-transmitted helminth infections and 46% of cases of schistosomiasis, in addition to approximately 20% of the cases of trachoma and leprosy . Given the known impact of these NTDs on both public health and socioeconomic development, it was recommended that scale-up of mass treatment for these diseases should commence in the most affected OIC nations . However, we find that it has been difficult to make progress against poverty and NTDs in the OIC nations.
Each country is color-coded by the percent of its population that lives on less than US$2 (purchasing power parity [PPP]) per day according to World Bank figures between 2005 and 2013. Suriname and Guyana are not shown.
Today, through support of the United States Agency of International Development’s (USAID) NTD Program, national efforts to control or eliminate NTDs through mass treatments are underway in eight sub-Saharan African OIC countries, in addition to Bangladesh and Indonesia . Efforts are also underway through the NTD Programme of the United Kingdom Department for International Development (UK DFID) , while the END Fund, a private philanthropic initiative, supports programs in sub-Saharan African OIC countries, including Nigeria, Niger, and Mali, as well as Yemen, which also receives NTD program support from the World Bank .
An updated review and “scorecard” confirm widespread poverty and disease remaining among the 30 most populated OIC countries—those with populations approaching 10 million people or more, and comprising more than 90% of the estimated 1.6 billion people living in these countries (Table 1) [7–9]. At least 40% of the four largest Muslim-majority countries (Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh) with a combined population of almost 800 million people  live on less than US$2 per day . Moreover, while nine of the 30 OIC countries have United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) human development indices (HDIs) in the “high” or “very high” category, 14 are in the “low” category, with some Sahelian OIC nations, such as Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Sudan ranking at or near the bottom of the UNDP’s list of HDIs .
Based on information from the Preventive Chemotherapy and Control (PCT) database of the World Health Organization (WHO) updated in 2014, helminthic NTDs are still widespread among the OIC countries [10–15]. As shown in Table 2, while the combined population of the 30 most-populated OIC countries of 1.56 billion people accounts for approximately 20% of the global population, it accounts for 37% of school-aged children requiring annual deworming for their intestinal helminth infections [10, 11] and 50% of school-aged children requiring preventive chemotherapy (PC) treatments for schistosomiasis [12, 13]. These OIC nations also account for one-third of the global population requiring PC for lymphatic filariasis (LF) [14, 15].
Such data can be used to calculate a “worm index” of human development in which the number of school-aged children requiring PC for both intestinal helminth and schistosomiasis is added to the population requiring PC for LF, and then divided by the total population of a given nation . It was found previously for the world’s 25 most populated countries that as the HDI fell into the medium range below 0.700, the worm index began to increase sharply towards 0.400; there was a significant rise in the worm index toward 1.000 as the HDI fell into the low range, below 0.500 . As shown in Fig 2, this inverse relationship between HDI and worm index is also true of the OIC countries (R = -0.85 and p < 0.0001). Remarkably, none of the OIC countries had an HDI over 0.85. The highest worm indices are among Sahelian nations, followed by other sub-Saharan African countries, and then the large Muslim-majority countries of Asia. Overall, the mean worm index of OIC countries (0.445) was substantially higher than our global estimates (0.270).
The links between intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis among school-aged children and human development were summarized previously, and include effects on childhood growth and cognition; similarly, there are links between LF and productive capacity .
Beyond helminth infections used to calculate the worm index of human development, as shown in Table 3, the major OIC countries also account for 44% of the global population at risk for onchocerciasis, mostly those in the Sahel and Yemen . Moreover, 68% of the incident cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occur in OIC countries, especially those in the Middle East and North Africa . Among the bacterial NTDs, OIC countries account for almost 20% of the world’s registered leprosy cases , while trachoma is an important disease in the Sahelian and other OIC countries [20,21]. Of the 30 most populated OIC countries, only 11 are considered by WHO to be non-endemic for trachoma [20,21].
The findings of widespread endemic NTDs, including the major helminth infections, CL, and trachoma, have important implications for the overall development of the world’s most populated OIC countries. In addition to their impact on human development, these NTDs actually promote poverty because of their chronic and debilitating effects, especially on women and children [22,23].
It is important for all nations to respond to diseases of poverty, such as NTDs. In recognition of this, the United Nations has incorporated the elimination of NTDs into their new Sustainable Development Goals. The NTDs are also important because of their potential to emerge or re-emerge in the setting of conflict and post-conflict situations, as we have seen in Africa and the Middle East [24,25]. Therefore, the leadership of the OIC may wish to further emphasize targeting the NTDs for control and elimination, along the lines of the 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [26,27].
Based in part on a recent survey of experts , the control and elimination of NTDs will require both a scale-up of global and integrated mass treatment programs, as well as the advancement of new technologies for NTDs . Given that the charter of the OIC includes scientific cooperation and advancing technologies, such efforts are within its scope. The Islamic Academy of Sciences founded in 1986 could be a key arm for the OIC in this activity . Potential partners include programs such as the US Science Envoy Program, created by the White House and State Department under the Obama administration in order to reach out scientifically to OIC countries through science and vaccine diplomacy, as well as programs like the NTD Support Center, established by the Task Force for Global Health, which works with communities to address the challenges associated with implementing effective NTD elimination strategies [31,32]. Together, such scientific cooperation could produce a new generation of “antipoverty” drugs, diagnostics , and vaccines in order to combat the major NTDs now affecting selected OIC countries as well as other nations trapped in poverty.
- 1. Organization of Islamic Cooperation. About OIC. http://www.oic-oci.org/oicv2/page/?p_id=52&p_ref=26&lan=en. Accessed December 20, 2014.
- 2. Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (2008) Charter of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Accessed online January 2, 2015. http://www.oic-oci.org/english/charter/OIC%20Charter-new-en.pdf.
- 3. Hotez PJ (2009) The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Devastating Health and Economic Impact on the Member Nations of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000539. pmid:19859530
- 4. USAID’s NTD Program. Countries Supported by USAID’s NTD Program. http://www.neglecteddiseases.gov/countries/. Accessed January 2, 2015.
- 5. Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases. UK Department for International Development (DFID). http://unitingtocombatntds.org/endorsement/uk-department-international-development-dfid. Accessed December 31, 2015.
- 6. Baring E, Hotez PJ (2014) Yemen: Fighting Neglected Tropical Diseases against All Odds. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(12): e3292. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003292. pmid:25521710
- 7. Worldometers. Countries in the World (ranked by 2014 population) http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/. Accessed December 20, 2014.
- 8. The World Bank. Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) % of population) http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.2DAY. Accessed December 21, 2014.
- 9. United Nations Development Programme Human Development Reports. Table 1: Human Development Index and its components. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-1-human-development-index-and-its-components. Accessed January 2, 2015.
- 10. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases. PCT Databank. Soil-transmitted helminthiases. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/preventive_chemotherapy/sth/en/. Accessed January 2, 2015.
- 11. World Health Organization (2014) Soil-transmitted helminthiases: number of children treated in 2012. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 133–40.
- 12. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases. PCT Databank. Schistosomiasis. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/preventive_chemotherapy/sch/en/. Accessed December 26, 2015.
- 13. World Health Organization (2014) Schistosomiasis: number of people receiving preventive chemotherapy in 2012. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 21–28.
- 14. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases. PCT Databank. Lymphatic Filariasis. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/preventive_chemotherapy/lf/en/. Accessed December 21, 2014.
- 15. World Health Organization (2014) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, 2013. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 409–20.
- 16. Hotez PJ, Herricks JR (2015) Helminth elimination in the pursuit of sustainable development goals: a “worm index” for human development. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 9: in press.
- 17. World Health Organization (2014) African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: progress report, 2013–2014. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 545–560.
- 18. Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M et al (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLOS One 7: e35671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035671. pmid:22693548
- 19. World Health Organization (2014) Global leprosy update, 2013; reducing disease burden. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 389–400.
- 20. World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases. PCT Databank. Trachoma. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/preventive_chemotherapy/trachoma/en/. Accessed December 22, 2014.
- 21. World Health Organization (2014) WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by the year 2020. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 89: 421–8.
- 22. Hotez PJ, Ferris MT (2006) The antipoverty vaccines. Vaccine 24:5787–99. pmid:16759763
- 23. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH (2009) Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. 373: 1570–5.
- 24. Alawieh A, Musharrafieh U, Jaber A, Berry A, Ghosn N, Bizri AR (2014) Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak. Int J Infect Dis 29: 115–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.04.023. pmid:25449245
- 25. Tong J, Valverde O, Mahoudeau C, Yun O, Chappuis F (2011) Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Confl Health 5: 7. doi: 10.1186/1752-1505-5-7. pmid:21615932
- 26. Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases. The London Declaration. http://unitingtocombatntds.org/sites/default/files/resource_file/london_declaration_on_ntds.pdf. December 20, 2014.
- 27. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases. World Health Assembly adopts resolution on all 17 neglected tropical diseases. http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/WHA_66_seventh_day_resolution_adopted/en/. Accessed December 29, 2014.
- 28. Keenan JD, Hotez PJ, Amza A, Stoller NE, Gaynor BD, et al. (2013) Elimination and Eradication of Neglected Tropical Diseases with Mass Drug Administrations: A Survey of Experts. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2562. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002562. pmid:24340111
- 29. Hotez P (2011) Enlarging the “audacious goal”: elimination of the world's high prevalence neglected tropical diseases. Vaccine 29S: D104–D110.
- 30. Islamic World Academy of Sciences. http://www.iasworld.org/. Accessed January 2, 2014.
- 31. Hotez PJ (2014) “Vaccine Diplomacy”: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2808. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002808. pmid:24968231
- 32. Neglected Tropical Disease Support Center. http://www.ntdsupport.org. Accessed March 3, 2015.
- 33. Hotez PJ (2011) New antipoverty drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics: a research agenda for the US President’s global health initiative (GHI). PLOS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1133. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001133. pmid:21655348