FreeMarker template error: The following has evaluated to null or missing: ==> citedArticle [in template "DesktopPlosNtds/ftl/article/metaTags.ftl" at line 97, column 10] Tip: If the failing expression is known to be legally null/missing, either specify a default value with myOptionalVar!myDefault, or use <#if myOptionalVar??>when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthessis: (myOptionVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionVar.foo)?? The failing instruction (FTL stack trace): ---------- ==> #if citedArticle.title?? [in template "DesktopPlosNtds/ftl/article/metaTags.ftl" at line 97, column 5] #include "../article/metaTags.ftl" [in template "DesktopPlosNtds/ftl/common/head.ftl" at line 59, column 1] #include "../common/head.ftl" [in template "DesktopPlosNtds/ftl/article/article.ftl" at line 13, column 1] ---------- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---------- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:98) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.newDesciptionBuilder(UnexpectedTypeException.java:41) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.(UnexpectedTypeException.java:24) at freemarker.core.Dot._eval(Dot.java:81) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:111) at freemarker.core.ExistsExpression._eval(ExistsExpression.java:81) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:111) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalToBoolean(Expression.java:143) at freemarker.core.ConditionalBlock.accept(ConditionalBlock.java:84) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:286) at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$Context.runLoop(IteratorBlock.java:193) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitIteratorBlock(Environment.java:509) at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.accept(IteratorBlock.java:103) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:286) at freemarker.core.ConditionalBlock.accept(ConditionalBlock.java:86) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.include(Environment.java:1712) at freemarker.core.Include.accept(Include.java:172) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:286) at freemarker.core.ConditionalBlock.accept(ConditionalBlock.java:86) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.include(Environment.java:1712) at freemarker.core.Include.accept(Include.java:172) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:243) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:277) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.processTemplate(FreeMarkerView.java:367) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.doRender(FreeMarkerView.java:284) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.renderMergedTemplateModel(FreeMarkerView.java:234) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractTemplateView.renderMergedOutputModel(AbstractTemplateView.java:167) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractView.render(AbstractView.java:303) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.render(DispatcherServlet.java:1244) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.processDispatchResult(DispatcherServlet.java:1027) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:971) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:893) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:966) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:857) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:620) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:842) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:303) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:316) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.invoke(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:126) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.doFilter(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:90) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.access.ExceptionTranslationFilter.doFilter(ExceptionTranslationFilter.java:114) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.session.SessionManagementFilter.doFilter(SessionManagementFilter.java:122) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.java:111) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.servletapi.SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.java:168) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.savedrequest.RequestCacheAwareFilter.doFilter(RequestCacheAwareFilter.java:48) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.doFilter(AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.java:205) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.jasig.cas.client.session.SingleSignOutFilter.doFilter(SingleSignOutFilter.java:65) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:120) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:120) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.header.HeaderWriterFilter.doFilterInternal(HeaderWriterFilter.java:64) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:107) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.context.request.async.WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.doFilterInternal(WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.java:53) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:107) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:330) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilterInternal(FilterChainProxy.java:213) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:176) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:344) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:261) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:85) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:107) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.mortbay.servlet.UserAgentFilter.doFilter(UserAgentFilter.java:78) at org.mortbay.servlet.GzipFilter.doFilter(GzipFilter.java:131) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:220) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:122) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:501) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:170) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:98) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:116) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:408) at org.apache.coyote.http11.AbstractHttp11Processor.process(AbstractHttp11Processor.java:1041) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$AbstractConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:607) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.JIoEndpoint$SocketProcessor.run(JIoEndpoint.java:315) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)