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Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums

Figure 3

Spatial distribution of subjects with Leptospira antibodies and all enrolled subjects, according to place of residence, and environmental attributes of the community site.

Panels A and B show the smoothed Kernel density distribution of subjects with Leptospira antibodies (N = 489) and all (N = 3,171) subjects, respectively, according to place of residence. The yellow-to-red gradient represents increasing density in smoothing analyses which used 40 meters as the bandwidth. Black circles show the location of subject households. Panel C shows the distribution of the population-adjusted Kernel density estimator for subjects with Leptospira antibodies which was calculated as the ratio of the estimators for subjects with Leptospira antibodies and all subjects. Panel D shows a topographic map generated by the digital terrain model. The yellow line is the level that is 20 meters above the lowest point in the four valleys within the community site. Panels E and F show the distribution of, respectively, open rainwater and sewage drainage systems and accumulated refuse according to size (m2).

Figure 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.g003