TY - JOUR
T1 - Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization
A1 - Tanaka, Gabriela D.
A1 - Furtado, Maria de Fátima D.
A1 - Portaro, Fernanda C. V.
A1 - Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto
A1 - Tambourgi, Denise V.
Y1 - 2010/03/09
N2 - Author Summary
The Elapidae family is represented in America by three genera of coral snakes: Micruroides, Leptomicrurus and Micrurus, the latter being the most abundant and diversified group. Micrurus bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for Micrurus envenomation is the application of heterologous antivenom. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of venoms from nine species of coral snakes and analyze the neutralization potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom. In vitro assays showed that the majority of the Micrurus venoms are endowed with phospholipase and hyaluronidase and low proteolytic activities. These enzymes are not equally neutralized in all venoms by the therapeutic antivenom. Moreover, in vivo assays showed that some of the Micrurus venoms are extremely lethal, such as the ones from M. altirostris, M. corallinus, M. frontalis, M. lemniscatus and M. spixii. Neutralization tests, performed in vivo, showed that the therapeutic antivenom was able to neutralize better the venoms from M. frontalis, M. corallinus, and M. spixii but not from M. altirostris and M. lemniscatus. Taken together, these results suggest that modifications in the immunization antigenic mixture should occur in order to generate more comprehensive therapeutic antivenom.
JF - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
VL - 4
IS - 3
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000622
SP - e622
PB - Public Library of Science
M3 - doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622