About the Authors

Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

Affiliations Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Bioscience, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Mihoko Kikuchi

Affiliation Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan

Nguyen Tien Huy

Affiliation Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan

Mohammed Nasir Shuaibu

Affiliation Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan

Mahamoud Sama Cherif

Affiliation Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan

Chuanxin Yu

Affiliation Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Meiyuan, Wuxi, People's Republic of China

Masahiro Wakao

Affiliation Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kohrimoto, Kagoshima, Japan

Yasuo Suda

Affiliations Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kohrimoto, Kagoshima, Japan, SUDx-Biotec Corporation, Shiroyama, Kagoshima, Japan

Kenji Hirayama

hiraken@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

Affiliation Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN) and Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ECM MK KH. Performed the experiments: ECM MK NTH MNS CY MSC MW YS. Analyzed the data: ECM MK NTH MNS YS KH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK CY MW YS KH. Wrote the paper: ECM KH.