About the Authors

Martha Betson
Department of Production and Population Health, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Jose C. Sousa-Figueiredo, J. Russell Stothard
Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Jose C. Sousa-Figueiredo
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Narcis B. Kabatereine
Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JRS NBK JCSF. Performed the experiments: MB JCSF. Analyzed the data: MB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NBK JRS. Wrote the paper: MB. Collected samples and epidemiological data: MB JCSF JRS. Critically revised the manuscript: NBK JCSF JRS. Approved final version of manuscript: MB JCSF NBK JRS.