About the Authors

Christina Bronowski

Contributed equally to this work with: Christina Bronowski, Maria C. Fookes

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Maria C. Fookes

Contributed equally to this work with: Christina Bronowski, Maria C. Fookes

Affiliation Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Ruth Gilderthorp

Affiliation Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Kevin E. Ashelford

Affiliation Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Simon R. Harris

Affiliation Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Amos Phiri

Affiliation Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Program, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

Neil Hall

Affiliation Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Melita A. Gordon

Affiliations Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Program, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Malawi

John Wain

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom

Charles A. Hart

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Paul Wigley

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Nicholas R. Thomson

nrt@sanger.ac.uk

NRT and CW also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Craig Winstanley

NRT and CW also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CB MCF CW NRT CAH PW JW. Performed the experiments: CB MCF. Analyzed the data: CB MCF RG KEA NRT CW MAG NH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KEA NH SRH MAG AP JW NRT CW. Wrote the paper: CB CW MCF PW NRT.