About the Authors

Furaha Mramba

Affiliation Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, Tanga, Tanzania

Francis Oloo

Affiliation Tsecon Consultants, Nairobi, Kenya

Mechtilda Byamungu

Affiliation Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, Tanga, Tanzania

Thomas Kröber

Affiliation Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Andrew McMullin

Affiliation Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Steve Mihok

Affiliation Russell, Ontario, Canada

Patrick M. Guerin

patrick.guerin@unine.ch

Affiliation Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FM FO MB PMG SM. Performed the experiments: FM FO MB PMG. Analyzed the data: TK AM PMG SM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PMG TK SM FM FO MB. Wrote the paper: PMG AM SM.