About the Authors

Abdou Amza

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger

Boubacar Kadri

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger

Baido Nassirou

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger

Sun N. Yu

Affiliation F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Nicole E. Stoller

Affiliation F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Satasuk J. Bhosai

Affiliation F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Zhaoxia Zhou

Affiliation F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Charles E. McCulloch

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Sheila K. West

Affiliation Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Robin L. Bailey

Affiliation Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Jeremy D. Keenan

Affiliations F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Thomas M. Lietman

Affiliations F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Institute for Global Health, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Bruce D. Gaynor

bruce.gaynor@ucsf.edu

Affiliations F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BDG TML JDK SKW AA. Performed the experiments: BDG TML JDK SJB RLB NES SNY BN BK AA. Analyzed the data: BDG TML CEM ZZ NES SNY AA. Wrote the paper: BDG TML CEM SNY AA.