About the Authors

Laura J. Appleby

l.j.appleby@sms.ed.ac.uk

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Norman Nausch

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Claire D. Bourke

Address Current address: Centre for Immunology and Infection, University of York, York, United Kingdom

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Nadine Rujeni

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Nicholas Midzi

Address Current address: Research, Council of Zimbabwe, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe

Affiliation National Institutes of Health Research, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe

Takafira Mduluza

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe

Judith E. Allen

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Francisca Mutapi

Affiliation Institute for Immunology & Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FM LJA TM NM. Performed the experiments: CDB FM LJA NM NN NR TM. Analyzed the data: FM LJA. Wrote the paper: FM LJA JEA. Designed the study: FM TM NM. Contributed to fieldwork: LJA NN NR CDB TM NM FM. Contributed to final version of the manuscript: LJA NN NR CDB TM NM FM JEA.